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NOKTH AMERICAN VELD FPLOV ERS

NORTH AMERICAN WILD FLOWERS

i MARY VAUX WALCOTT

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PUBLISHED BY

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION WASHINGTON, D.C. 1925

FO

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME III

Nore: All sketches ave life size. The system used in naming the plants is the American Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Descriptions of the plants illustrated may be found in Gray's New Manual, Britton and Brown’s Illustrated Flora, Small’s Flora of the Southeastern United States, or Rydberg’s Flora of the Rocky Mountains. .

PLATE

I6I.

mG

Bottle Gentian. Gentiana saponarta LINNAEUS Western Mountain-ash. Sorbus sambucifolia (CHAMISSO AND SCHLECHTENDAL)

ROEMER

. Plume Anemone (flower). Pulsatilla occidentalis (WaTSON) FREYN . Plume Anemone (fruit). Pulsatilla occidentalis (WATSON) FREYN

. Meadow Fleabane. Evigeron speciosus DE CANDOLLE

. Star Solomonplume. Vagnera stellata (LINNAEUS) MoroNnG

. Double Bladderpod (flower). Physaria didymocarpa (HOOKER) GRAY . Double Bladderpod (fruit). Physaria didymocarpa (HOOKER) GRAY . Gtouse Whortleberry (flower). Vaccinium scoparium LEIBERG

. Grouse Whortleberry (fruit). Vaccinium scoparium LEIBERG

. Buff Pussytoes. Antennaria luzuloides TORREY AND GRAY

. Small Pyrola. Pyrola minor LINNAEUS

. Western Bluebells. Mertensia paniculata (ArtoN) Don

. Green Bearcabbage. Veratrum viride AYTON |

. Sagebrush Mariposa. Calochortus macrocarpus DouGLas

. White Dryad (flower). Dryas octopetala LINNAEUS

. White Dryad (fruit). Dryas octopetala LINNAEUS

. Moss Gentian. Gentiana prostrata HAENKE

. Low Whortleberry. Vaccinium caespitosum MicHaux

. Small Cranberry. Oxeycoccus palustris PERSOON

. Purple Mountain Violet. Viola adunca J.E.Smrra

. Rosette Cinquefoil. Porentilla uniflora LEDEBOUR

DEN

. Sidesaddle Goldentod. Solidago ciliosa GREENE

. Tufted Saxiftage. Sascifraga caespitosa LINNAEUS

. Pygmy Andtosace. Androsace subumbellata (A. NELSON) SMALL

. Western Green Alder. Alnus sinuata (REGEL) RyDBERG

. Giant Arborvitae. Thuja plicata Don

. Limber Pine. Pinus flexilis Jamus

- Northern Butterbur. Perasites hyperboreus RyDBERG

. American Vetch. Vacta americana MUHLENBERG

. Saussutea. Saussurea densa (HooKER) RyDBERG

. Brook Lobelia. Lobelia kalmiit Linnazus

. Mountain Cranberry (flower). Vaccinium vitisidaea minus LoDDIGES . Mountain Cranberry (fruit). Vaccinium vitisidaea minus LoDDIGES . Woolly Agoseris. Agoseris villosa RYDBERG

. American Twinflowet. Linnaea borealis americana (FORBES) REHDER . Sand Phacelia. Phacelia linearis (Pursn) HoLzincErR

. Northern Butterwort. Pinguicula vulgaris LInNaEUS

. San Diego Mariposa. Calochortus weedti Wood

. Buff Monkeyflower. Diéplacus longiflorus NuTTAL

. Lemon Columbine. Aguilegia flavescens WATSON

. Avalanche-lily. Erythronium montanum Watson

. Queencup (flower). Clintonia uniflora (MENziEs) KuNTH

. Queencup (fruit). Clintonia uniflora (MENziEs) KunTH

. Catalina Mariposa. Calochortus catalinae \WaTsON

. Mexican Fremontia. Fremontodendron mexicanum DAVIDSON

. Partridgeberry. Matchella repens LinNaEus

. Martshmarigold. Caltha palustris LiInNaEus

. Foxglove Pentstemon. Pentstemon digitalis SweEEt) NUTTALL

. Beautyberry. Callicarpa americana LINNAEUS

. Field Violet. Viola rafinesquii GREENE

Spotted Cyrtopodium. Cyrtopodium punctatum (LinNaEus) LINDLEY

. Red Pinesap. Hypopitys lanuginosa (MicHaux) NuTTAL

. Squawroot. Conopholis americana (LINNAEUS FILIUS) WALLROTH . Ragged Fringe-orchid. Habenaria lacera (MicHaux) LoppicEs

. Ramshead Ladyslipper. Cypripedium arietinum Ropert Brown

. Showy Ladyslipper. Cypripedium reginae WALTER

. Rose Pogonia. Pogonia ophioglossoides (LINNAEUS) KER

. Venus Flytrap. Dzonaea muscipula Exxis

. Carolina Jessamine. Gelsemium sempervirens (LINNAEUS) PERSOON . Mountain-laurel. Kalmia latifolia LinNaxus

. Goldenclub. Ovontium aquaticum LINNAEUS

. American Waterlily. Castalia odorata (DRYANDER) WOODVILLE AND Woop . Smooth Yellow Violet. Viola eriocarpa SCHWEINITZ

. Bogbean. Menyanthes trifoliata LINNAEUS

. Yaupon. Ilex vomitoria ArTON

. Trumpetcreeper. Bignonia radicans LINNAEUS

. Highbush Blueberry. Vaccinium corymbosum LinnaEus

. Box Huckleberry. Gaylussacia brachycera (MicHaux) Gray

. Pineland Blueberry. Vaccinium tenellum Arron

. Cucumbertree. Magnolia acuminata LINNAEUS

. Downy Pinxterbloom. Azalea rosea LoIsELEUR

. Spotted Beebalm. Monarda punctata LINNAEUS

. Virginia Springbeauty. Claytonia virginica LINNAEUS

. Purple Butterwort. Pinguicula elatior MicHaux

. Parrot Pitcherplant. Sarracenia psittacina Micnaux

. Wood Skullcap. Scurellaria serrata ANDREWS

. Blue-eyed-grass. Stsyrinchium angustifolium MILLER

. Red Trillium. Trillium erectum LiInNaEus

. Snow Trillium. Trillium grandiflorum (MicHAUX) SALISBURY

BOTTLE GENTIAN

Gentiana saponaria Linnaeus

In autumn, long after most of our flowers except goldenrods and astets have faded, the bottle gentian 1s found in blossom in the thickets bordering woodlands. Unlike its better-known relative, the fringed gentian, it is a perennial, and may be sought with some confidence year after year in the same locality. Its richly colored flowers, of a hue rate at any season, are a delight to the eye when other flowers are so scatce. Blue and purple flowers often have albino forms, and the bottle gen- tian 1s No exception, as plants with pure white corollas are not unusual.

Bottle gentian ranges from Florida and Louisiana northward to Connecticut and Ontario, and closely related species ate even mote widely distributed.

The specimen sketched came from the vicinity of Washington, District of Columbia.

PLATE I61

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161. MVW 1925

WESTERN MOUNTAIN-ASH

Sorbus sambucifolia (Chamisso and Schlechtendal) Roemer

Western mountain-ash usually grows in stony places, beneath large trees of in openings in the forest. In especially favorable situations it sometimes develops into a tree 20 feet high. It is not a relative of the ashes, as its name would imply, but belongs to the Apple Family. The brilliant scarlet fruits, resembling miniature apples, are a favorite food of birds, especially in winter. The flavor of these fruits is not agreeable to the human palate, although when crushed in water they yield a subacid beverage that is not unpleasant. The small white flowers, which unfold in spring, are arranged in broad, flat-topped clusters. The

buds, before expansion, are cream-colored. The open flowers are very _sweet-scented. |

A telated European species is called rowan-ttee or towan.

This species of mountain-ash ranges from the southern Rockies of Arizona and New Mexico, northward to Alberta and Alaska. It is known also from Siberia.

The specimen from which the painting was made grew on the motor road near Vermilion Summit, about twelve miles from Castle Station, Albetta, at an altitude of 5,000 feet.

PLATE 162

162. MV W 1g25

PLUME ANEMONE

Pulsatilla occidentalis (Watson) Freyn

Those whose fancy has led them in spring or summer to the higher parts of the Canadian Rocky Mountains have been thrilled with the loveliness of this beautiful anemone as it springs up at the edges of tetreating snow banks on the alpine slopes and valleys. The flowers begin to open when the stems are only an inch high and still nestle in a mass of grayish-green furry buds and half unfolded leaves. Within a few days the stems lengthen, and each bears a large, creamy flower with golden and green center, the blossoms contrasting with the back- ground of pale green foliage. As they fade the flowers ate sometimes tinged with blue.

The plume anemone belongs to the Crowfoot Family. It ranges from California and Montana northward to Alberta and Alaska.

The specimen sketched grew neat Lake O’Hata, fifteen miles by trail from Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 4,000 feet.

PLATE 163

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163. MVW 1925

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PLUME ANEMONE

Pulsatilla occidentalis (Watson) Freyn FRUIT OF PLATE 163

In the long days of June and July the seeds of alpine plants ripen tapidly, and the flowets of the plume anemone soon ate replaced by silvery gray-green seed heads. These ate almost as beautiful as the flowers, and the head of silky seed tails, all smoothed sleekly from the center of the cluster, reminds one of nothing so much as the crown of a child’s curly head. When ripe the “seeds” ate easily detached from the stem, the long feathery tail supporting them on their wind-blown journey in search of a favorable situation for germination. These seed heads are relished by the marmots, which eat them upon the spot, or catry them totheir winter caches. The marmots also pile them into soft beds in theit butrows.

This member of the Crowfoot Family ranges from Montana to California and northward to Alberta and Alaska.

The specimen sketched was collected near the summit of the pass at the head of Johnson Creek, Alberta, Canada, at an elevation of 8,500 feet.

PLATE 164

164. MVW 1925

MEADOW FLEABANE

Erigeron speciosus De Candolle

Meadow fleabane 1s a brilliant member of the Aster Family, and is one of a large group of closely related plants which attain their fullest development in the western United States. It grows in meadows and in moist, open woodlands. The flower head at the top of the stem is larger than the heads which expand later, and when the plant is at its best it presents a perfect bloom surrounded by several half-open buds. As the species is plentiful in favorable situations, it gives a gay aspect to the slopes in the lower altitudes of the Rocky Mountains in June and July.

Meadow fleabane ranges from Utah and Colorado to Oregon and Alberta. |

The sketch was made from a specimen gathered at Ghost River, twenty-five miles from Banff, Alberta, at an altitude of 4,000 feet.

PLATE 165

165. Mvw 1925

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STAR SOLOMONPLUME

Vagnera stellata (Linnaeus) Morong

Star solomonplume loves moist rich woods. In its habit of growth and in the appearance of the flowers it recalls vaguely the lily-of-the- valley. By their rootstocks the plants spread widely, forming extensive patches in the woodlands. The rootstocks show no trace of the seal- like scats so characteristic of the solomonseals. The plant is gtaceful in form, and beautiful when in either flower or fruit. It belongs to the Lily-of-the-valley Family, which includes asparagus, lily-of-the-valley, and merrybells. The fruit is a small globular berry, at first green, with three dark vertical stripes, but turning black when quite ripe. Some botanists use the name Silacina stellata for this plant.

Stat solomonplume ranges from Virginia to New Mexico and California, and northward to Newfoundland and Alaska. It grows also in northern Europe.

The specimen sketched was obtained at Lake Minnewonka, near Banff, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 4,500 feet.

PLATE 166

106. MV W 1925

DOUBLE BLADDERPOD

Physavia didymocarpa (Hooker) Gray

The double bladderpod is a curious plant of unusual appearance. It thrives best in dry limestone soils on steep mountain sides, or in the deposits of glacial streams. The many pale blue-green leaves form a rosette upon the surface of the soul, from which spring the delicate gtay stems bearing four-petaled yellow flowers. The root is long, thick, woody, and tough. In its aspect the plant suggests an alpine species. It belongs to the Mustard Family.

Double bladderpod ranges from Colorado to Utah and northward to Saskatchewan and A lbetta.

The specimen sketched grew near Lake Minnewonka, seven miles from Banff, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 4,500 feet.

PLATE 167

167, MVW 1925

DOUBLE BLADDERPOD

Physavia didymocarpa (Hooker) Gray

FRUIT OF PLATE 167

The hot sun of the long June days of northern latitudes soon develops the seed vessels of the double bladderpod, and the reason for the com- mon name is then disclosed. When decorated with the many inflated seed pods the plant is unique in appearance and more conspicuous than when in bloom.

The generic name Physaria is derived from a Greek word signifying bellows, in allusion to the form of the fruits. About six species of Physavia ate known, all of them natives of western North America.

Double bladderpod ranges from Colorado to Utah and northward to Saskatchewan and Alberta.

The specimen sketched grew near Ptarmigan Pass, ten miles north of Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 6,500 feet.

PLATE 168

GROUSE WHORTLEBERRY

Vaccinium scoparium Leiberg

The higher slopes of the western mountains, just below ttee line, ate often covered with widespread patches of grouse whortleberty. The dwatf bushes ate only six to twelve inches in height, with shortly angled, slender green branches. The small, thin, finely toothed leaves ate bright green. Underneath the foliage, and half hidden by it, hang the dainty little pink flower bells. The plants prefer well-drained, forested slopes, which are not too densely shaded, but they often grow ptofusely in even the denser forest. Like other whortleberries, and its close relatives, the blueberries, it is restricted to acid soils.

Grouse whortleberry ranges in the higher mountains from New Mexico to California, and northward to Alberta and British Columbia.

The specimen sketched was obtained near Hector, British Columbia, Canada, at an altitude of 6,000 feet.

PLATE 169

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169. MVW 1925

GROUSE WHORTLEBERRY

Vaccinium scopavium Leibetrg FRUIT OF PLATE 169

Grouse whortleberries mature rapidly, and by the middle of August the plants are well fruited with pleasantly flavored bright ted berries. These ate much enjoyed by grouse, which ate usually found whete the berries are plentiful.

Grouse whortleberty occurs in the higher mountains from New Mexico to California, and northward to Alberta and British Columbia.

The specimen sketched was collected in the valley of the Red Deer River twenty miles by trail from Lake Louise, Alberta, at an altitude of 6,000 feet.

PLATE I70

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170. MVW: 1925

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BUFF PUSSYTOES

Antennaria luzuloides Torrey and Gray

In the Rocky Mountain region over forty species of Antennaria, ot pussytoes, are known, and many othets grow in the Eastern States and along the Pacific Coast. They ate members of the great Aster Family. In most of the species the plants have long, slender, leafy runners or sterile shoots, spreading over the ground in every direction to form dense mats, but such runners ate absent in the species here illustrated. This is a slender erect plant, usually four to fifteen inches high. It grows on open, rocky or grassy slopes at middle altitudes in the moun- tains, or even above timber line. In many parts of the United States the species of Antennaria ate known as Indian tobacco, and the leaves ate chewed by children. |

Buff pussytoes ranges from Wyoming and Montana westward to Oregon and British Columbia.

The specimen figured was obtained in the valley of the Siffleur River forty-five miles from Lake Louise, Alberta, at an altitude of 4,500 feet.

PLATE 171

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Ply MV We 1925.

ONAL, PY ROLA,

Pyrola minor Linnaeus

The small pyrola delights in wet places. We find it flourishing in bogs ot on oozing stream banks, usually in densely shaded situations. Floweting in midsummer, its rosy pink saucets lend a touch of color to its otherwise dull surroundings. The flowers vary greatly in depth of color, and occasionally they are white. They ate smaller and fewer than those of the bog pyrola, which is a species mote generally dis- tributed and locally more abundant.

The small pyrola has a wide tange in the colder parts of North America, extending from Massachusetts to Colorado and California, and northward to the Arctic regions. It grows also in Europe and Asia.

The specimen sketched was obtained in the valley of the Pipestone River, about ten miles by trail north of Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 4,500 feet.

PLATE 172

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172. MV W 1925

WESTERN BLUEBELLS

Mertensia paniculata (Aiton) Don

We have seen bluebells but rarely in our Western travels. Unlike its cousin, the Virginia bluebells, this plant is hairy, and the smaller, less numerous flowers ate much deeper in color. The plant inhabits moist woodlands, where it often forms large clumps. Western blue- bells belongs to the Borage Family, and is a relative of forget-me-not and heliotrope.

This species of bluebells ranges from Iowa to Washington and Alaska, and extends eastward to Lake Superior and Hudson Bay.

The specimen sketched was collected near Lake Minnewonka, eleven miles from Banff, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 4,000 feet.

PLATE 173

173. MVW 1925

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GREEN BEARCABBAGE

Veratrum viride Aiton

Whetever green bearcabbage grows, it 1s always a conspicuous plant, in spite of the fact that its flowers are scarcely different in color from the foliage. In the West it loves the moist, rich soil of mountain meadows and valleys. The leaves are strongly veined and have a plaited appearance. The plant is coatse and tall, the flower panicles often tising five feet above the ground. The sturdy shoots of this plant push through the soil when the earliest spring flowers unfold, as soon as the snow has melted, and at that time its fresh green color is most attractive. It belongs to the Bunchflower Family and, like some of its near relatives, is poisonous. The poison ts chiefly in the root, however, and when there is a shortage of other forage, animals often graze on bearcabbage without ill effect.

Green bearcabbage is found over much of the cooler parts of North America from Virginia to Tennessee and Oregon, and northward.

The sketch was made froma specimen obtained in the Bow Valley, thitty miles by trail north of Lake Louise, Alberta, at an altitude of 6,500 feet.

PLATE 174

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174. MV W 1925

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SAGEBRUSH MARIPOSA

Calochortus macrocarpus Douglas

The genus Calochortus, comprising the mariposas, which ate often called mariposa lilies or butterfly tulips, the globe-tulips, and several kinds of pussy-eats, contains about fifty species. Nearly all of them ate so beautiful that they command the admiration of all who see them. Out experience with the sagebrush mariposa was a revelation of nature’s methods. Our camp had been pitched on a dry bench fifty feet above the Kootenay River near Canal Flats, British Columbia, where the sparse vegetation indicated a lack of moisture. One night a heavy storm of wind and rain came up. A few days later the miracle was manifest, for all around the tent the buds of the sagebrush mati- posa were almost ready to unfold, and soon the plants were in perfect bloom. There ate myriads of them in some parts of the Columbia River Valley, where the little prairies are colored purple with their flowets.

This mariposa 1s found in sagebrush plains from Montana to Ore- gon and northward to British Columbia.

The specimen figured was sketched at the camp mentioned above, near Canal Flats, British Columbia, Canada, at an altitude of 3,500 feet.

PLATE 175

175. MV W.1925

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WHITE DRYAD

Dryas octopetala Linnaeus

White dryad is a very decorative plant in its chosen habitat. It flour- ishes best in a soil of disintegrated limestone, and it is also found cling- ing to rough limestone rocks, where it forms close mats, its green folt- age hiding the interlaced masses of woody stems and dead leaves beneath. Above these mats the beautiful cup-shaped flowers with their golden centers are borne on dainty stems from one to four inches tall. The flowets attract many bees and small flies. The stems and leaves ate sticky, and have a tesinous odot.

White dryad belongs to the Rose Family, and 1s found from Lab- tador and Greenland throughout Arctic America, and in the Rocky Mountains from Utah and Colorado to British Columbia. It occurs also in northern Europe and Asia.

Thesketch was made from plants that grew in Skoki Valley, fifteen miles by trail from Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 7,500 feet.

PLATE 176

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176.

WHITE DRYAD

Dryas octopetala Linnaeus FRUIT OF PLATE 176

The flowers of white dryad are quickly withered by the hot sun of midsummer, their stems lengthen, and the twisted fruit head ap- pears, later spreading into a ball of “seeds”. These are each provided with a silky tail, which enables the wind to carry the seeds to distant places. At a certain stage, before the heads are fully ripe, the ponies ate fond of them. At this time the plants often give a misty pink color to the areas they occupy.

White dryad occurs on limestone soils from Labrador and Green- land throughout Arctic America, in the Rocky Mountains from Utah and Colorado to British Columbia, and in Europe and Asia.

The specimen sketched was obtained in the valley of the Siffleur River, fifty miles by trail north of Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 6,500 feet.

PLATE 177

177. MVW 1925

MOSS GENTIAN

Gentiana prostrata Haenke

This tiny gentian will escape all but the keenest eyes. The flowets open only in bright sunshine, and the stems creep through the grass, as though to elude detection. The corollas ate usually of the brightest blue, but sometimes they are white. The minute green leaves have a nattow white cartilaginous border which is not found in othet gen- tians. This is a truly alpine plant. It is the smallest of the North American gentians.

The moss gentian ranges from the Colorado Rockies to Alberta and Alaska and the Arctic regions of the Old World. The American plant differs slightly from the typical Eurasian form and is sometimes recognized as variety americana.

This specimen was found neat the shore of Lake Magog at the base of Mount Assiniboine, Alberta, at an altitude of 7,500 feet.

PLATE 178

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LOW WHORTLEBERRY

Vaccinium caespitosum Michaux

The low whottleberty, hidden among the gtass, on gentle slopes or in alpine meadows, is unlike most other members of its group, for it grows only from three to seven inches tall. It has woody stems, much branched, and in spring bears a heavy load of lovely white or pink bells. These later develop into blue berties which are coveted with an attractive bloom. The leaves turn a deep red color in autumn.

The low whortleberry may be found from New Hampshite to Labrador, and in the Rocky Mountains from Colorado to British Columbia and Alaska and westward to California.

We found the specimen sketched at Bow Lake, twenty-five miles north of Lake Louise Station, British Columbia, at an altitude of 6,000 Peet

PLATE 179

179

SMALL CRANBERRY

Oxycoccus palustris Persoon

The small cranberry 1s a typical boreal plant, and no doubt sutvived the glacial period close to the margin of the ice sheet, or on mountain summits which projected above the ice. Upon the retreat of the glaciers the plant migrated from its places of refuge into the many bogs formed by the damming of rivulets. It now ranges throughout the glaciated territory of the Northern Hemisphere, extending well into the Arctic region. In North America it is found as far south as New Jetsey, Michigan, and the State of Washington. The cranberries belong to the Blueberry Family. By many botanists they are referred to the genus Vaccinium, which contains the blueberries and whortlebetries.

The specimen sketched grew at Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, near the point where Lake Louise Creek flows out of the lake, at an altitude of 5,000 feet.

PLATE 180

180

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PURPLE MOUNTAIN VIOLET Viola adunca J. E. Smith

The purple mountain violet is a small plant of the higher altitudes, whose flowets are large in proportion to the size of the leaves. It nes- tles inthe grass and other herbage as though to hide its lovely blossoms, and soon fades in the hot sunshine of early summer. The painting repre- sents an unusual dwarfish form of this species, which at lower alti- tudes is a taller, longer-stemmed plant, especially when it grows in wet, shaded spots.

Viola adunca has a wide range, being found from New Hampshire and New Brunswick to the mountains of New Mexico and Califor- nia, and north to Alaska.

The specimen sketched grew near the shores of Bow Lake, thirty miles north of Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 6,000 heer:

PLATE I81

181. MV W 1925

ROSETTE CINQUEFOIL

Potentilla uniflora Ledebour

Rosette cinquefoil is a plant seldom seen by the traveler, for it loves tocky places at high altitudes, to which it is hard to climb. It grows in tufts or bunches from a mass of stout, woody, interlaced undet- ground stems. Its rich yellow flowets, so large in proportion to the size of the plant, remind one of a small yellow rose. The leaves of this species have three leaflets instead of the five or more possessed by most Potentillas. It belongs to the Rose Family.

Rosette cinquefoil ranges from Colorado northward through the Rockies to the Arctic regions and westward to Oregon. It grows also in Greenland and Asia.

The specimen sketched was obtained on the rocky slopes above the source of Ranger Brook in the Sawback Range, fifteen miles west of Banff, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 7,500 feet.

PLATE, 152:

182. MVW 1925

SIDESADDLE GOLDENROD

Solidago ciliosa Greene

Although sidesaddle goldenrod is a dwarf plant, it is a showy member of its group, for it has much larger flowers than most of the goldenrods found in the western mountains. It enjoys steep mountain slopes, where it is conspicuous among the many flowers that grow beside the trails. The flower heads are equally large when the plants grow at high altitudes, even though the stems may be only an inch long.

Sidesaddle goldentod is found from Arizona and Colorado north- watd to Alberta and British Columbia.

The specimen sketched was obtained on the trail leading to Burgess Pass about seven miles from Field, British Columbia, Canada, at an altitude of 6,500 feet.

PLATE 183

183. MV W 1925 Eger he iis

DUPED siAxTeRAG E

Saxifraga caespitosa Linnaeus

Tufted saxifrage grows among disintegrating rocks, usually where moisture is seeping through from the slopes above. One of its pecu- liarities is the tuft of green leaves at the base of each of the dainty flower stems, which are usually arranged ina graceful way. This species is vety variable in size, and the most reduced alpine form 1s shown in the illustration.

Tufted saxifrage ranges through Canada to Greenland and west- watd to Alaska. It is found also in northern Asia and Europe.

The sketch was made from a specimen obtained on the mountain slopes above the head waters of Johnson Creek, twenty miles by trail northeast of Lake Louise, Alberta, at an altitude of 7,000 feet.

PLATE 184

184. MVW 1925

PYGMY ANDROSACE Androsace subumbellata (A. Nelson) Small

Pygmy androsace is a tiny membet of the Primrose Family, which, because of its small size and inconspicuous coloring, easily escapes notice. It grows in meadows or on stony alpine slopes. The delicate slender stems and white flowers give it a graceful and dainty appear- ance quite in contrast to that of the sweet androsace, previously pictured.

Pygmy androsace ranges from New Mexico and Arizona north- watd to Alberta and British Columbia.

The sketch was made from a specimen collected near the head- waters of Johnson Creek, thirty miles by trail from Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 7,000 feet.

PLATE 185

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185. MVW 1925

WESTERN GREEN ALDER

Alnus sinuata (Regel) Rydberg

Thickets of green alder are the bane of the mountaineer, for their hatd, gnarled stems interlace to form an impenetrable tangle. On mountain sides, where, in early spring, snow slides have plunged down the steep slopes, weighing the aldets to the ground, it is almost im- possible to climb up against them. The rich green of their foliage combines well with their surroundings. The plant is especially inter- esting towards autumn, when a single branch may catty the remains of last year’s fruits as well as this yeat’s, and in addition the catkins ready for next year's early display of flowers.

Western green alder belongs to the Birch Family, which contains some of the hardiest shrubs and trees. This species is found from Wyo- ming to California and northward to Alaska, and is especially abun- dant in the Selkirk Mountains.

The specimen sketched was gathered at Glacier, British Columbia, Canada, at an altitude of 3,500 feet.

PLATE 186

186.MVW 1925

in. 4

ares

GIANT ARBORVITAE

Thuja plicata Don

Giant arborvitae flourishes in rich, moist soil, and, as the name im- plies, the trees grow to great size. They frequently rise far above the surrounding forest, and their smooth columnar trunks, with pale, red- dish gray bark, are vety striking. The branches become pendent, from the weight of the fruit, and the little cones stand erect on the hang- ing twigs, presenting a very unusual effect. Both foliage and immature fruit are rich green in color.

Giant arborvitae is found from Montana to California, extending northward to Alaska.

The specimen sketched was obtained in the Columbia River Valley, thirty miles south of Golden, British Columbia, at an altitude of 3,000 feet.

PLATE 187

187. MVW 1925

LIMBER PINE

Pinus flexilis James

Limber pine appeats to enjoy growing in difficult positions and ts often seen springing from clefts in the rocks on the mountain sides, where it would seem impossible for a tree to obtain a foothold. The branches ate exceedingly flexible, bending readily under the heavy weight of the developing cones, and seeming scarcely able to with- stand the strain.

Limber pine is found in the Rocky Mountain region from northern Mexico to Alberta, and in some of the higher desert ranges westwatd to southern California.

The specimen sketched was obtained from Devils Gap, east of Lake Minnewonka, twenty-five miles from Banff, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 4,000 feet.

PLATE 188

188. MY W 1925

:

NORTHERN BUTTERBUR

Petasites hyperboreus Rydberg

Northern butterbut 1s rarely seen in bloom by visitors to the Cana- dian Rockies, because it flowets very early in the season. The silky seed heads topping its stout woolly stems ate not likely to attract atten- tion. If, in summer, one is fortunate enough to find a sheltered spot where the ice and snow have tecently melted, the northern butter- bur is sometimes found in flower, grouped with springbeauties and buttercups, in swampy soil or near snow water rivulets. The flowers are sweet-scented, and brightly colored. The ponies dearly love to eat the plant to vary still further their diet of “all sorts of feed”.

This species of butterbur ranges from the mountains of Washing- ton and Alberta northward to the Arctic Coast, from Hudson Bay to Alaska.

The specimen sketched was found at Vermilion Pass, thitty-five miles south of Banff, Alberta, at an altitude of 6,500 feet.

PLATE 189

t

18g. MVWw 1925

AMERICAN VETCH

Vicia americana Muhlenberg

American vetch is one of the most graceful and beautiful mem- bers of its group. It loves moist ground, and may be found in open meadows, in brushy thickets, or even in the forest. It is a weak vine, clinging for support to its neighbors by the forked tendrils which tip the leaves ina hold almost impossible to disentangle. The fruit is a small flat pod.

American vetch tanges widely, being found from Virginia west to Arizona and north to New Brunswick and Alaska.

The specimen sketched was obtained near Banff, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 4,000 feet.

PLATE I90

I9g0. MV W 1925

Rid a m4 Hy

SAUSSUREA

Saussurea densa (Hooker) Rydberg

Saussurea is one of the tater members of the Aster Family. It is nearly related to the thistles, but in habit of growth and in the size of its flower heads it is very different. It prefers stony limestone slopes of moraines, and is confined to the higher altitudes. The flowers grow- ing in dense heads, are attractive to bees. After the flowers have faded the downy “seeds” form an equally showy flat head.

In the Canadian Rockies saussutea is a conspicuous plant because it is so different from any other flower. Its range is limited to that region. :

The specimen sketched was obtained near the base of Tilted Moun- tain, fifteen miles by trail north of Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at

an altitude of 7,000 feet. !

PLATE I9I

19gIl. MVW 1925

ot 4 a

eae

BROOK LOBELIA

Lobelia kalmiz Linnaeus

Brook lobelia is abundant locally in the Canadian Rockies. The stutdiest specimens seen were growing beside a brook that found its way through a bed of disintegrated calcareous tufa. It is a dainty and pretty plant, though not to be compared in showiness with its rela- tives, the cardinalflower and the large blue lobelia.

The range of brook lobelia is wide—1in moist calcareous souls from New Jetsey northward to Newfoundland and westward to Iowa and British Columbia.

The specimen sketched was obtained near Canal Flats, British Columbza, at an altitude of 3,000 feet.

PLATE 192

192. MVW 1925

MOUNTAIN CRANBERRY

Vaccinium vitisidaea minus Loddiges

Thete is a striking contrast between the deep green of mountain cranbetty leaves and the dainty bunches of white bells at the tips of the woody stems. The sweet-scented flowets are frequently tinged with pink. The plant, like other members of the Blueberry Family, delights in acid soil.

Mountain cranberry grows neatly throughout the colder parts of North America, occurring rarely in New England and southern Canada, but becoming a common plant in high mountain and Arctic lowland tegions. It presumably survived the glacial period on some of the non-glaciated islands, and when the ice retreated it rapidly occupied the devastated territory, its seeds being widely dispersed by birds. The typical form of the species is similarly distributed in Europe and Asia. i

The specimen sketched was obtained on the shores of Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 5,500 feet.

PLATE 193

MOUNTAIN CRANBERRY

Vaccinium vitisidaea minus Loddiges FRUIT OF PLATE 193

The fruit of the mountain cranberty is sour, but it is relished by birds, and its beautiful red color always attracts the eye. Whete con- ditions of moisture and soil acidity ate favorable the stems cover the ground in dense mats, and the berries attain twice the size of those on plants found in dry, sterile situations.

The mountain cranberry grows throughout the colder parts of North America, its southernmost known station being in northeast- ern Massachusetts.

The specimen sketched was procured in the valley of the Siffleur River, fifty miles north of Lake Louise, Alberta, at an altitude of 4,000 feck

PLATE I 94

~

194. MVW 1925

WOOLLY AGOSERIS

Agoseris villosa Rydberg

When we wete climbing the slopes of Survey Peak, which rises from the right bank of Glacier Lake, this showy plant was very prom- inent at an altitude of 7,500 feet. Our camp was pitched in the timber a quartet of a mile from the outlet of the lake, and there was some distance to be covered over a rough trail, among the willows, alders, and other thick, bushy vegetation, before the grassy slopes and bare rocks were reached. Here the sturdy stems of woolly agoseris grew from the tosettes of pale leaves, and the golden flowets showed to perfection against the soft gray background of the mountain side. The woody underground stems bore witness to many yeats of te- tatded growth resulting from short growing seasons, and from al- pine environment. The plant is a member of the Chicory Family, and is related to the dandelion, which it somewhat resembles in general appearance.

Glacier Lake is reached by trail, and is about forty-eight miles northeast of Lake Louise Station, Alberta, Canada.

Woolly agoseris ranges from Utah to Alberta and British Co- lumbia.

PLATE 195

IOVS Mv Ww 1925

easel Oe

a

AMERICAN TWINFLOWER

Linnaea borealis americana (Forbes) Rehder

This dainty plant, named for Linnaeus, the father of modern botany, in accordance with his own choice, by his friend Gronovius, is un- surpassed in modest beauty. It is a trailing evergreen vine, from whose slender branches tise threadlike stems, each bearing two nodding flowers. These ate so sweet-scented that the odor sometimes pene- trates even into a railroad train passing along a mountain side when the plant is in bloom. It loves the deep recesses of the forest, where it thrives with moss and other plants that demand acid soils. Perhaps this tiny blossom was the inspiration of Linnaeus when he said of the unfolding flowers, “1 saw God in his glory passing near me, and bowed my head in worship.”

The twinflower belongs to the Honeysuckle Family. It has a wide range, the American form, which is only slightly different from that of the Old World, being distributed from New Jersey to New Mexico and northward to Greenland and Alaska. The typical form grows in Europe and Asia.

The sketch was made from a specimen obtained at Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, at an altitude of 5,500 feet.

PLATE 196

196. MVW 1925

Gabe a

a ete

SAND PHACELIA

Phacelia linearis (Putsh) Holzinger

We found the sand phacelia growing plentifully on a mound of disintegrated limestone in the Columbia River valley. The plant has dainty flowers, which are larger than those of many other Rocky Mountain phacelias. It flourishes in dry soils, blooming freely with a minimum of moisture. The phacelias are exclusively American plants, belonging to the Waterleaf Family. They are most abundant in the Western States, but several members of the group occur along the Atlantic coast, and othets extend southward to the mountains of Guatemala.

Sand phacelia has a wide range, from Utah to California, and north to British Columbia and Alberta.

The specimen sketched was obtained in the Columbia River val- ley, five miles from Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia, at an altitude of 2,500 feet.

PLATE 197

197.